Professor
Department of Educational Foundations & Leadership

Linda Bol

2313 Education Building
Norfolk, 23529

Ph.D. in Educational Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, (1991)

M.A. in General/Experimental Psychology, California State University, Fresno, (1985)

B.A. in Psychology, California State University, Fresno, (1982)

Contracts, Grants and Sponsored Research

Nunnery, J. A., Arnold-Puchalski, P., Bol, L., Morrison, G. R., Chappell Moots, S. and Grant, M. "A technology-faciliated scale-up of a proven model of mathematics instruction in high needs schools" $26,250,000. Federal. January 2012 - December 2016
Nunnery, J. A., Yen, C., Dickerson, D. L., Bol, L., Garner, J., Byrd-Poller, L. and Arnold, P. "A cluster randomized control trial of the efficacy of the National Math and Science Initiative’s AP Training and Incentives Program" $1,881,346. Federal. July 01, 2011 - July 01, 2015
Pribesh, S. L., Bol, L. and Blackburn, D. "Smaller Learning Communities Evaluation" $420,000. June 2006 - September 2010
Bol, L. "An investigation of teachers' assessment practices in the New American Schools restructuring models" $5,000. 1995 - 1996
Bol, L. and Ethridge, G. "Evaluation of Memphis Center for Urban Partnerships" $10,000. 1994 - 1995

Expertise

Self-regulated Learning
Metacognition
Study Activities
Program Evaluation
Research Methods

Articles

Hawthorne, K., Bol, L. and Pribesh, S. L. (2017). Can Providing Rubrics for Writing Tasks Improve Developing Writers' Calibration Accuracy?. The Journal of Experimental Education 85 (4) , pp. 689-708.
Bol, L. and Hacker, D. J. (2014). Publishing in high quality journals: Perspectives from overworked and unpaid reviewers. Journal of Computing in Higher Education 26 , pp. 39-53.
Unger, S., Pribesh, S. L., Bol, L. and Dickerson, D. L. Students' perspectives of their service-learning experiences: A case study of Operation Smile. Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership.
Fischer, C., Bol, L., Pribesh, S. L. and Nunnery, J. A. (2013). Where is the learning in small learning communities? Academic press, social support for learning and academic engagement in smaller learning community classrooms. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk 18 , pp. 177-192.
Bol, L. and Hacker, D. J.. (2012). Calibration research: Where do we go from here?. Frontiers in Educationl Psychology 3.
Bol, L., Hacker, D. J., Walck, C. and Nunnery, J. A. (2012). The effects of individual or group guidelines on the calibration accuracy and achievement of high school biology students. Contemporary Educational Psychology 37 , pp. 280-287.
Bol, L. and Garner, J. (2011). The challenges in supporting self-regulation in distance eduction environments. Journal of Computing in Higher Education 23 (2-3) , pp. 104-123.
Wotring, K. and Bol, L. (2011). Generational differences among community college students in their evaluation of academic cheating. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 39 (9).
Fischer, C., Bol, L. and Pribesh, S. L. (2011). An investigation of higher-order thinking skills in smaller learning community social studies classrooms. American Secondary Education 39 (2) , pp. 5-26.
McKinney, S. E., Bol, L. and Berube, C. (2010). Mathematics teaching with the Stars. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching and Research Yearbook , pp. 37-47.
Bol, L., Riggs, R., Hacker, D. j., Dickerson, D. L. and Nunnery, J. A. (2010). The calibration accuracy of middle school students in math classes. Journal of Education in Research.
Berry, R. Q., Bol, L. and McKinney, S. E. (2009). Addressing the principles for school mathematics: Elementary teachers’ pedagogy and practices in an urban high-poverty school.. The International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education 4 (1) , pp. 1-22.
Hacker, D. J.., Bol, L. and Bahbahani, K. (2008). Explaining calibration accuracy in classroom contexts: The effects of incentives, reflection, and explanatory style. Metacognition and Learning 3 , pp. 101-121.
Nunnery, J. A., Ross, S. M.. and Bol, L. (2008). The construct validity of teachers' perceptions of change in schools implementing comprehensive school reform models.. Journal of Educational Research and Policy Studies 8 , pp. 67-87.
Lui, R. and Bol, L. (2007). A comparison of anonymous versus identifiable e-peer review on colelge student writing performance and extent of critical feedback.. Journal of Interactive and O-line Learning 6 (2) , pp. 100-115.
Ross, S. M.., McDonald, A., Bol, L. and McSparrin-Gallagher, B. (2007). Charter schools as a vehicle for education reform: Implementation and student achievement outcomes at three inner-city sites.. Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk 12 (3) , pp. 271-300.
Gimbert, B. A.., Bol, L. and Wallace, D. B.. (2007). The influence of teacher preparation on student achievement and the application of national standards by teachers of mathematics in urban secondary schools.. Education and Urban Society 40 , pp. 91-117.
Bol, L. and Berry, R. Q.. (2005). Secondary mathematics teachers' perceptions of the achievement gap. . The High School Journal 88 (4) , pp. 32-46.
Bol, L., Hacker, D. J.., O'Shea, P. and Allen, D. (2005). The influence of practice and achievement level on calibration accuracy. Journal of Experimental Education 73 , pp. 269-290.
Bol, L. (2004). Teachers' assessment practices in a high-stakes testing environment.. Teacher Education and Practice 17 (2) , pp. 162-181.
Bol, L., Ross, S. M.., Nunnery, J. A. and Alberg, M. (2002). A comparison of teachers' assessment practices in school restructuring models by year of implementation. . Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk 7 (4) , pp. 407-423.
Bol, L. (2001). Ethical and practical considerations in research and evaluation: Lesson learned from and about school/college partnerships.. Pennsylvania Educational Leadership 20 , pp. 104-106.
Bol, L. and Hacker, D. (2001). The effect of practice tests on students' calibration and performance.. Journal of Experimental Education 69 (2) , pp. 133-151.
Bol, L., Nunnery, J. A., Stephenson, P. L.. and Mogge, K. (2000). Changes in teachers' assessment practices in the New American Schools restructuring models.. Teaching and Change 79 (2) , pp. 127-146.
Slawson, D. L.., Clemens, L. H.. and Bol, L. (2000). Research and the clinical dietitian: Perceptions of the research process, potential barriers to participation, and preferred routes to obtaining research skills. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100 , pp. 1144-1148.
Bol, L., Hacker, D. J.., Horgan, D. and Rakow, E. (2000). Test prediction and performance in a classroom context. Journal of Educational Psychology 92 , pp. 160-170.
Ross, S., Alberg, M., Smith, L., Anderson, R., Dietrish, A., Bol, L., Lowther, D. and Phillipsen, L. (2000). Using whole school restructuring designs to improve educational outcomes: The Memphis story at Year 3.. Teaching and Change 7 , pp. 112-126.
Bol, L., Warkentin, R. W.., Nunnery, J. A. and O'Connell, A. A.. (1999). College students' study activities and their relationship to study content, reference course, and achievement . College Student Journal 33 , pp. 608-622.
Bol, L., Nunnery, J. A., Lowther, D. L. ., Dietrich, A. P.., Pace, J. B. ., Anderson, R. S. ., Bassoppo-Moyo, T. C.. and Phillipsen, L. C.. (1998). The effects of internal and external supoprts for change in the New American Schools. Education and Urban Society 30 (3) , pp. 358-384.
Bol, L., Stephenson, P., Nunnery, J. A. and O'Connell, A. A.. (1998). The influence of teaching experience and subject area on teachers' assessment practices. The Journal of Educational Research 30 , pp. 358-384.
Smith, L. J.., Maxwell, S., Lowther, D., Hacker, D., Bol, L. and Nunnery, J. A. (1997). Activities in schools and programs experiencing the most and least early implementation successes.. School Effectiveness and School Improvement 8 (1) , pp. 125-150.
Whicker, K., Bol, L. and Nunnery, J. A. (1997). Cooperative learning in the secondary mathematics classroom.. Journal of Educational Research 91 (1) , pp. 42-48.
Bol, L., Langley, S. C.. and O'Connell, A. A.. (1997). Evaluation issues and strategies for community-based organizations developing women's HIV prevention programs.. Evaluation and the Health Professions 20 , pp. 428-454.
Nishimura, N. and Bol, L. (1997). School counselors' perceptions of the counseling needs of biracial children in an urban educational setting.. Research in the Schools 4 , pp. 17-23.
Nunnery, J. A., Bol, L., Dietrich, A., Rich, L., Kelly, S., Hacker, D. and Sterbin, D. (1997). Teachers' initial reactions to their pre-implementation preparation and early restructuring experiences.. School Effectiveness and School Improvement 8 (1) , pp. 72-94.
Bailey, T. and Bol, L. (1996). A survey of accelerated Master of Teacher program graduates at the University of Memphis. 3 , pp. 61-66.
Strage, A. and Bol, L. (1996). High school biology: What makes it a challenge for teachers?. Journal of Research in Science Technology 33 , pp. 753-772.
Bol, L. and Strage, A. (1996). The contradiction between teacher's instructional goals and their assessment practices.. Science Education 80 (2) , pp. 145-163.
Thomas, J. W.., Bol, L., Warkentin, R. W.., Wilson, M., Strage., A. and Rohwer, W. D.. (1993). Interrelationships among students' study activities, self-concept of academic ability, and achievement as a function of characteristics of high school biology courses.. Applied Cognitive Psychology 7 , pp. 499-532.
Thomas, J. W. ., Bol, L. and Warkentin, R. W.. (1991). Antecedents of college student's' study deficiencies: The relationship between course features and students' study activities.. Higher Education 22 , pp. 275-296.
Bol, L. and Steinhauer, G. D.. (1990). Decreases in behavior in vicarious reinforcement procedures. Psychological Reports 66 , pp. 583-594.

Book Chapters

Hacker, D. J.., Bol, L. and Keener, M. C.. (2008). Metacognition in education: A focus on calibration in Handbook of Metamemory and Memory (pp. 429-455) Greenwich CT: Information Age Press.
Hacker, D. J.. and Bol, L. (2004). Metacognitive theory: Considering the social influences (pp. 275-297) Greenwich, CT: Information Age Press.
Bol, L. and Nunnery, J. A. (2004). The impact of high-stakes testing on restructuring efforts in schools serving at risk students. (pp. 101-117) Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellon Press.
Bol, L. and Stringfield, S. (2003). The KEYS initiative in Memphis City Schools" A "jump-start" on the journey to school restructuring. (pp. 17-32) Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Warkentin, R., Bol, L. and Wilson, M. (2003). Using the Partial Credit model to verify a theoretical model of academic studying. (pp. 71-95) Greenwich, CT: Ablex.

Conference Proceeding

Garner, J. and Bol, L. (2011). The challenges of e-learning initiatives in supporting students with self-regulated learning and executive function difficulties Proceedings of the 24th International Conference of School Improvement and Effectiveness.
Berry, R. and Bol, L. (2005). Perceptions of the mathematics achievement gap: A Survey of NCTM membership. Proceedings of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.
Morgan, R. F., Fleener, C. E., Bol, L. and Hager, J. (2003). Conation and social environment in literacy development (pp. 3529-3536) International Journal of Learning.
Reece, G. A.., Bol, L. and Morrison, G. R. (1996). A formative evaluation of a computer-based instruction tutorial with application to electronic performance support systems (pp. 95-109) Conference Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery.

Presentations

Morrison, J., Bol, L., Ross, S. and Watson, G. S. (April , 2014). Prompting knowledge construction as an instructional support for principle learning in simulations Paper American Educational Research Association Philadelphia, PA.
Bol, L. and Campbell, K. (April , 2014). The effects of self-regulated learning on community college students' metacognition and achievement in developmental math Paper American Educational Research Association Philadelphia, PA.
Morrison, J., Watson, G. S. and Bol, L. (November , 2013). Simulation design strategies to promote knowledge construction and self-regulated learning Paper American Educational Research Association Annaheim, California.
Hoag-Carhart, E., Nunnery, J. A., Bol, L., Arnold-Puchalski, P., Chappell Moots, S., Morrison, G. R., Grant, M. and Perry, T. (April , 2013). Readiness for reform in middle schools adopting PowerTeaching for mathematics instruction Paper American Educational Research Association San Francisco.
Spruce, R. and Bol, L. (April , 2013). Teachers beliefs, knowledge, and practice of metacognition and self-regulated learning Paper American Educational Research Association San Francisco California.
Bol, L. ( 2012). How do we know what we don't know? Methods and findings from calibration studies Lecture Brown Bag Research Lab Presentation Old Dominion University.
Bol, L., Fischer, C., Pribesh, S. L. and Nunnery, J. A. (April , 2012). Academic press, social support for learning, and academic engagement in smaller learning community classrooms Paper American Educational Research Association Vancouver.
Hacker, D. J.. and Bol, L. (April , 2011). Comparing absolute and relative accuracy in a classroom context American Educational Research Association New Orleans.
Bol, L. (April , 2011). A tribute to Barry Zimmerman: The origins of the Studying and Self-Regulated Special Interest Group and his contributions American Educational Resesarch Association New Orleans.
Garner, J. and Bol, L. (January , 2011). The challenge of e-learning initiatives in supporting students wit self-regulated learning and executive function difficulties. International Congress of School Effectiveness and School Improvement Limmassol, Cypress.
Horne, P., Dickerson, D. L., Bol, L. and Butler, L. L. (November , 2010). Project SEARCH - Urban elementary students’ views of environmental roles and actions Virginia Association of Science Teachers Hampton, VA.
Fischer, C., Bol, L., Pribesh, S. L. and Nunnery, J. A. (April , 2010). An investigation of higher-order thinking skills in smaller learning community social studies classrooms American Educational Research Association Denver.
Trombino, D., Bol, L., Pribesh, S. L. and Manfra, M. (April , 2010). Experiences of preservice social studies teachers with historical thinking skills American Educational Research Association Denver, Colorado.
Horne, P., Dickerson, D. L. and Bol, L. (April , 2010). High school students' argument development in response to media stories about local science issues American Educational Research Association Denver, Colorado.
Riggs, R., Bol, L., Nunnery, J. A. and Dickerson, D. L. (April , 2010). The calibration accuracy of middle school students in math classes American Educational Research Association Denver, Colorado.
Walck, C., Bol, L., Hager, J. and McKinney, S. E. (April , 2010). The effect of individual or group guidelines on the calibration accuracy of high school biology students American Educational Research Association Denver, Colorado.
Pribesh, S. L., Bol, L. and Hall, T. (January , 2010). Evaluation of Small Learning Communities Brown Bag Research Presentations Old Dominion University.
Pribesh, S. L., Bol, L., Hall, T. and Baker, P. (November , 2009). Results from a Three-Year Study of Smaller Learning Communities in High Schools American Evaluation Association Annual Meeting Orlando.
McKinney, S. E. and Bol, L. (April , 2009). Mathematics teaching with the stars American Educational Research Association San Diego, CA.
Lucking, R. and Bol, L. (April , 2009). The Effects of Peer-Assessment Training on University Students’ Writing Performance and Satisfaction within a Wiki Environment American Educational Research Association Conference San Diego.
Pribesh, S. L., Bol, L., Fischer, C. and Nunnery, J. A. (November , 2008). Evaluating small learning communities in United States High Schools American Evaluation Association Annual Meeting .
Wotring, K. E.. and Bol, L. ( 2007). Promoting academic integrity in a multi-generational student body Virginia Community College System New Horizons Conference Roanoke, VA.
Pribesh, S. L., Bol, L., Nunnery, J. A. and Fischer, C. (November , 2007). Linking Smaller Learning Communities to Student Achievement and Related Outcomes Measures American Evaluation Association Annual Meeting Baltimore, Maryland.
Ross, S. M.., McDonald, A., Bol, L. and McSparrin-Gallagher, B. (April , 2007). Charter schools as a vehicle for education reform: Implementation and student achievement outcomes at three inner-city sites. American Educational Research Association Chicago, IL.
Bol, L., Jamali, B. E.., Echternach, J. L.. and Dustin, J. C. (November , 2006). Cultural competence and curricula in physical therapist professional education American Physical Therapy Association, Combined Sections Meeting San Diego, CA.
Ross, S. M.., McDonald, A. and Bol, L. (April , 2006). Educational reform in “choice” contexts: Achievement and implementation outcomes for three inner-city charter schools. American Educational Research Association San Francisco, CA.
Bol, L. and Lui, R. (April , 2006). The impact of anonymous versus identifiable e-peer review on college students' writing performance. American Educational Research Association San Francisco, CA.
Bol, L., Hacker, D. J.. and Babahani, K. (April , 2005). Can calibration accuracy be improved? American Educational Research Association Montreal, Canada.
Gimbert, B., Bol, L. and Wallaca, D. (April , 2005). The influence of teacher preparation programs on student achievement and NCTM standards in Algebra I classrooms. American Educational Research Association Montreal, Canada.
Bol, L. and Hacker, D. J.. (April , 2005). The role of explanatory style in calibration. Studying and Self- Regulated Learning Special Interest Group Montreal, Canada.
Bol, L. and Hacker, D. J.. (April , 2004). Metacognitive theory: Considering the social influences. American Educational Research Association San Diego, CA.
Bol, L. (April , 2004). Teachers’ assessment practices in a high-stakes testing environment American Educational Research Association San Diego, CA.
Morgan, R. F., Fleener, C. E. and Bol, L. (July , 2003). Conation and social environment in literacy development Learning Conference University of London.
Bol, L., O'Shea, P., Hacker, D. and Allen, D. (April , 2003). The influence of practice and achievement level on calibration accuracy American Educational Research Association Chicago, IL.
Cristol, D. S.., Bol, L. and Fleener, C. E. (February , 2002). Time: An impediment or advancement for PDS programs? Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Denver, CO.
Bol, L. and Nunnery, J. A. (November , 2001). The impact of high-stakes testing on restructuring efforts in schools serving at risk students. Annual Meeting of the National Association of Multicultural Education Las Vegas, NV.
Cristol, D. S.., Fleener, C. E. and Bol, L. (February , 2001). Study of the time university faculty invest in their PDS. Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators New Orleans, LA.
Bol, L., Stephenson, T., Ross, S. and Alberg, M. (April , 2000). A comparison of teachers’ assessment practices by school restructuring model and year of implementation American Educational Research Association New Orleans, LA.
Bol, L., Hacker, D. and Vaden, R. (April , 1999). The effect of practice tests on performance and calibration for open-ended versus close-ended items American Educational Research Association Montreal, Canada.
Hacker, D., Bol, L., Horgan, D. and Rakow, E. (April , 1998). Students’ decisions concerning test prediction and test preparedness. American Educational Research Association San Diego, CA.
Nunnery, J. A., Hacker, D. and Bol, L. (April , 1998). Sustaining long-term restructuring using “outside-in” (external design team) and “inside-in” (district and school-based) professional development support. American Educational Research Association San Diego, CA.
Bol, L., Hacker, D., Warktentin, R. and Horgan, D. (April , 1998). The effect of study strategies on achievement: Does it vary by type of test item? American Educational Research Association San Diego, CA.
Horgan, D., Bol, L. and Hacker, D. (August , 1997). An examination of the interrelationships among self, peer, and instructor assessments Annual Meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction Athens, Greece.
Bol, L., Hacker, D. and Horgan, D. (March , 1997). College students’ study strategies and their relationship to academic achievement Annual Meeting of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology Atlanta, GA.
Bol, L., Nunnery, J. A., Stephenson, P. L. . and Mooge, K. (January , 1997). A preliminary investigation of teachers' assessment practices in teh New American Schools restructuring models adopted by Memphis City Schools Tenth Annual Congress for School Effectiveness and Imrpovement Memphis, TN.
Alberg, M., Bassoppo-Moyo, T. and Bol, L. (November , 1996). Restructuring schools to improve educational outcomes: Formative evaluation of the New American Schools scale-up in Memphis City Schools. Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association Tuscaloosa, AL.
Stephenson, P. L.. and Bol, L. (November , 1996). The relationship between teacher experience and level of teaching with assessment method. Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association Tuscaloosa, AL.
Gardner, D., Nunnery, J. A., Smith, L., Ross, S. and Bol, L. (November , 1996). Third-year outcomes from an evaluation of magnet school programs in an urban district. Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association Tuscaloosa, AL.
Reece, G. A.., Bol, L. and Morrison, G. R. (October , 1996). A formative evaluation of a computer-based instruction tutorial with application to electronic performance support systems. 14th Annual International Conference on Computer Documentation Research Triangle Park, NC.
Ross, S., Henry, D., Bol, L., Phillipsen, L. and Dietrich, A. (April , 1996). Matching schools to programs: Selection, negotiation, and preparation American Educational Research Association New York, NY.
Bol, L., Ross, S., Alberg, M., Smith, L. and Nunnery, J. A. (November , 1995). Restructuring schools to improve educational outcomes: Formative evaluation of the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) scale-up in Memphis City Schools. Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association Biloxi, MS.
Nunnery, J. A., Ross, S., Smith, L., Gardner, D. and Bol, L. (November , 1995). The role and success of magnet schools in an urban district: An evaluation of varied school programs. Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association Biloxi, MS.
O'Connell, A. A.. and Bol, L. (April , 1995). A HyperCard tutoring system for probability problem solving. American Educational Research Association San Francisco, CA.
Bol, L., O'Connell, A. A.. and Nunnery, J. A. (April , 1995). An exploratory study of college students' study activities and their relationship to study context, reference course and achievement. American Educational Research Association San Francisco, California.
Warkentin, R. and Bol, L. (April , 1995). Using the Partial Credit Model to verify a theoretical model of academic studying Annual Meeting of the Eighth International Objective Measurement Workshop Berkeley, CA.
Nunnery, J. A., Ross, S. M.., Smith, L., Gardner, C. D.., Nath, L. and Bol, L. (November , 1994). The role and success of magnet schools in an urban district: An evaluation of varied school programs Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association Nashville, TN.
Bol, L. and Strage, A. (November , 1993). Relationships among teachers’ assessment practices and their student outcome and study skill development goals Annual Meeting of the Mid-Southern Educational Research Association New Orleans.
Wilson, M., Bol, L. and Warkentin, R. W.. (April , 1991). The relationship between biology students' study activities and their achievement as moderated by course characteristics: A hierarchical linear model. American Educational Research Association Chicago.
Bol, L. and Thomas, J. W.. (April , 1991). The relationship between teachers' classroom practices and students' study activities in high-school Biology courses American Educational Research Association Chicago.
Warkentin, R. W.., Bol, L. and Thomas, J. W.. (April , 1990). A hierarchical model of studying: The development of a study activities inventory American Educational Research Association Boston.
Thomas, J. W.., Strage, A., Bol, L. and Warkentin, R. W.. (April , 1990). A survey of features of high school science courses presumed to affect students' study activities: A preliminary report American Educational Research Association Boston.
Bol, L. (November , 1989). Graduates as mentors for undergraduates: A survey Annual Meeting of the Western Psychological Association Reno.
Bol, L. (May , 1989). Self-observation of study behaviors. Annual Meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis Milwaukee.
  • 2012: Largest Grant Award, Darden College of Education
  • 2012: Most Collaborative Grant Award, Darden College of Education
  • 2011: Doctoral Mentoring Award, Old Dominion University
  • 2011: Tribute and Award to Barry Zimmerman, Studying and Self-Regulated Learning SIG, American Educational Research Association
  • 2009: Shining Star, Old Dominion University
  • 2009: Finalist for Doctoral Mentoring Award, Old Dominion University
  • 2008: Finalist for Doctoral Mentoring Award, Old Dominion University
  • 2004: Tonelson Award for Outstanding Faculty Member in Research, Teaching, and Service , Darden College of Education
  • 2000: Department Scholarship Award, Education Curriculum and Instruction, Old Dominion University
  • 1996: Outstanding Teacher Education Award for Research , University of Memphis
  • 1992: Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award, Graduate School of Education, University of California