Professor & Assoc Dean
Biological Sciences

Wayne Hynes

NORFOLK, 23529

Ph.D. in Microbiology, Otago University, (1985)

Contracts, Grants and Sponsored Research

Hynes, W. L. and Shollenberger, L. "Role of Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) in infections caused by Rickettsia parkeri." $428,218. Federal. -
Persico, E., Hynes, W. L. and Gaff, H. "Rickettsia parkeri, an agent in the shadows of the Gulf Coast tick in coastal Virginia" $125,000. Private. -
Cumbie, A. and Hynes, W. L. "Assessment of Rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Coastal California" $9,841. Private. -
Hynes, W. L. and Gaff, H. "Lyme disease: Don’t forget the shrew!" $155,000. Federal. -
Hynes, W. L. "The role of defensin in the transmission of Borrelia burgdorfei" $60,000. Federal. January 2007 - December 2008
Hynes, W. L. and Sonenshine, D. "How Bacteria Colonize Ticks: The Role of antimicrobial proteins" $440,063. Federal. October 2002 - September 2007
Dobbs, F. and Hynes, W. L. "Antibiotic resistance, plasmids, and the potential for lateral gene transfer in Vibrio cholerae found in ships' ballast water" $200,355. Federal. June 2003 - February 2006


Infectious disease agents and mechanisms of disease (NOT treatment or diagnosis) / Microbiology / Bioterrorism agents / Innate immunity
Tick-Borne diseases

Research Interests

Ticks and Tick-borne diseases


Nadolny, R. M.., Wright, C. L.., Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L. and Gaff, H. (2014). Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern Virginia. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (5) , pp. 53-57.
Wright, C. L.., Hynes, W. L., White, B. T.., Marshall, M. N.., Gaff, H. and Gauthier, D. (2014). Single-tube real-time PCR assay for differentiation of Ixodes affinis and Ixodes scapularis. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (5) , pp. 48-52.
Wright, C. L.., Nadolny, R. M.., Jiang, J., Richards, A. L.., Sonenshine, D., Gaff, H. and Hynes, W. L. (2011). Rickettsia parkeri in gulf coast ticks, southeastern Virginia, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 17 (5) , pp. 896-898.
Nadolny, R. M., Wright, C. L., Hynes, W. L., Sonenshine, D. and Gaff, H. (2011). Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Virginia and implications for the spread of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Journal of Vector Ecology 36 (2) , pp. 464 - 467.
Fedrow, A., Wright, C., Gaff, H., Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L. and Richards, A. (2012). In vitro propagation of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae isolated from Amblyomma maculatum. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 64 (74-81).
Hynes, W. L., Stokes, M. M.., Hensley, S. M.., Todd, S. and Sonenshine, D. (2008). Using RNA interference to determine the role of varisin in the innate immune system of the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 46 , pp. 7-15.
Todd, S. M.., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2007). Tissue and life-stage distribution of a defensin gene in the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Med Vet Entomol 21 (2) , pp. 141-147.
Hynes, W. L., Ceraul, S. M.., Todd, S., Seguin, K. C.. and Sonenshine, D. (2005). A defensin-like gene expressed in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Med. Vet. Entomol. 19 , pp. 339-344.
Heller, E. L., Wright, C. L., Nadolny, R. M., Hynes, W. L., Gaff, H. and Walters, E. L. (2016). New records of Ixodes affinis parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology 53 (2) , pp. 441 - 445.
Wright, C. L., Sonenshine, D., Gaff, H. and Hynes, W. L. (2015). Experimental Vertical Transmission of Rickettsia parkeri in the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 6 , pp. 568 - 573.
Dobbs, F., Goodrich, A. L., Thomson, F. K. and Hynes, W. L. (2013). Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships’ ballast tanks and coastal waters: Assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA). Microbial Ecology 65 , pp. 969-974.
Mahasneh, A., Darby, M. M., Tolle, S. L., Hynes, W. L., Laroussi, M. and Karakas, E. (2011). Inactivation of Porphyromonas gingivalis by Low-Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma.. Plasma Medicine 1 , pp. 191 - 204.
Laroussi, M., Karakas, E. and Hynes, W. L. (2011). Influence of cell type, initial concentration, and medium on the inactivation efficiency of low-temperature plasma. IEEE Transactions on plasma science 39 (11) , pp. 2960-2961.
Turner, L. A.., McCombs, G., Hynes, W. L. and Tolle, S. L. (2009). A novel approach to controlling bacterial contamination on toothbrushes: chlohexidine coating. Int. J. Dent. Hyg. 7 (4) , pp. 241-245.
Hynes, W. L., Johnson, C. and Stokes, M. (2009). A single nucleotid mutation results in loss of enzymatic activity in the hyaluronate lyase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes. Microbial Path. 47 , pp. 308-313.
Morris, A. D.., McCombs, G. B.., Akan, T., Hynes, W. L., Laroussi, M. and Tolle, S. L. (2009). Cold Plasma Technology: Bactericidal effects of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus cereus microorganisms. J. Dent. Hyg. 83 , pp. 55-61.
Wyatt, K. B.., Campos, P. F.., Gilbert, M. T. P.., Kolokotronis, S., Hynes, W. L., DeSalle, R., Ball, J., Daszak, P., MacPhee, D. E.. and Greenwood, A. D.. (2008). Historical mammal extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease. PLoS ONE 3 (11).
Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2008). Molecular characterization and related aspects of the innate immune response in ticks. Front. Biosci. 13 , pp. 7046-7063.
Kocan, K. M.., de la Fuente, J., Manzano-Roman, R., Naranjo, V., Hynes, W. L. and Sonenshine, D. (2008). Silencing expression of the defensin, varisin, in male Dermacentor variabilis by RNA interference results in reduced Anaplasma marginale infections. Exp Appl Acarol 46 (1-4) , pp. 17-28.
Laroussi, M., Hynes, W. L., Akan, T., Lu, X. and Tendero, C. (2008). The Plasma Pencil: A source of hypersonice cold plasma bullets forbiomedical applications. IEEE Transact Plasma Sci. 36 , pp. 1298-1299.
Laroussi, M., Tendero, C., Lu, X., Alla, S. and Hynes, W. L. (2006). Inactivation of bacteria by the Plasma Pencil. Plasma Process. Polym. 3 , pp. 470-473.
Marshall, H., Hargraves, P. E.., Burkholder, J. M.., Parrow, M. P.., Elbrachter, M., Allen, E. H.., Knowlton, V. M.., Rublee, P. A.., Hynes, W. L., Egerton, T. A.., Remington, D. L.., Wyatt, K. B.., Lewitus, A. J.. and Henrich, V. C.. (2006). Taxonomy of Pfiesteria (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae 5 , pp. 481-496.
Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L., Ceraul, S. M.., Mitchell, R. and Benzine, T. (2005). Host blood proteins and peptides in the midgut of the tick Dermacentor variabilis (Say) contribute to bacterial control. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 36 , pp. 207-223.
Hynes, W. L. (2004). Virulence factors of the group A streptococci and genes that regulate their expression. Front Biosci 9 , pp. 3399-433.
Ceraul, S. M., Sonenshine, D. E., Ratzlaff, R. E. and Hynes, W. L. (2003). An arthropod defensin expressed by the hemocytes of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 , pp. 1099-1103.
Sonenshine, D., Ceraul, S. M.., Hynes, W. E.., Macaluso, K. R.. and Azad, A. F.. (2002). Expression of defensin-like peptides in tick hemolymph and midgut in response to challenge with Borrelia burgdorferi, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Exp Appl Acarol 28 (1-4) , pp. 127 - 134.
Broadwater, A. H.., Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L., Ceraul, S. and DeSilva, A. (2002). Glass capillary tube feeding: a method for infecting nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol 39 (2) , pp. 285-292.
Ceraul, S. M.., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2002). Resistance of the tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) following challenge with the bacterium Escherichia coli (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). J Med Entomol 39 (2) , pp. 376-383.
Johns, R., Ohnishi, J., Broadwater, A., Sonenshine, D., De Silva, A. M.. and Hynes, W. L. (2001). Contrasts in tick innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi challenge: immunotolerance in Ixodes scapularis versus immunocompetence in Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 38 (1) , pp. 99-107.
Johns, R., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2001). Identification of a defensin from the hemolymph of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 31 (9) , pp. 857-865.
Johns, R. H.., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2000). Enhancement of OspC expression by Borrelia burgdorferi in the presence of tick hemolymph. FEMS Microbiol Lett 193 (1) , pp. 137-141.
Hynes, W. L. and Walton, S. L.. (2000). Hyaluronidases of Gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 183 (2) , pp. 201-207.
Johns, R., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2000). Response of the tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) to hemocoelic inoculation of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochetales). J Med Entomol 37 (2) , pp. 265-270.
Hynes, W. L., Dixon, A. R.., Walton, S. L.. and Aridgides, L. J.. (2000). The extracellular hyaluronidase gene (hylA) of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 184 (1) , pp. 109-112.
McLaughlin, R. E.., Ferretti, J. J.. and Hynes, W. L. (1999). Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcin A-FF22 lantibiotic regulon: model for production of the lantibiotic SA-FF22 by strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 175 (2) , pp. 171-177.
Johns, R., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (1998). Control of bacterial infections in the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae): evidence for the existence of antimicrobial proteins in tick hemolymph. J Med Entomol 35 (4) , pp. 458-464.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J. (1995). A response regulator gene controls production of the lantibiotic streptococcin A-FF22.. Developments in Biological Standardization 85 , pp. 635-637.
Hynes, W. L., Hancock, L. and Ferretti, J. J.. (1995). Analysis of a second bacteriophage hyaluronidase gene from Streptococcus pyogenes: evidence for a third hyaluronidase involved in extracellular enzymatic activity. Infect Immun 63 (8) , pp. 3015-3020.
Hynes, W. L., Friend, V. L.. and Ferretti, J. J.. (1994). Duplication of the lantibiotic structural gene in M-type 49 group A streptococcus strains producing streptococcin A-M49. Appl Environ Microbiol 60 (11) , pp. 4207-4209.
Hynes, W. L., Ferretti, J. J.. and Tagg, J. R.. (1993). Cloning of the gene encoding Streptococcin A-FF22, a novel lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus pyogenes, and determination of its nucleotide sequence. Appl Environ Microbiol 59 (6) , pp. 1969-1971.
Hynes, W. L., Ferretti, J. J., Gilmore, M. S. and Segarra, R. A. (1992). PCR amplification of streptococcal DNA using crude cell lysates.. FEMS Microbiology Letters 73 (1-2) , pp. 139 - 142.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J.. (1989). Sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of the hyaluronidase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage H4489A. Infect Immun 57 (2) , pp. 533-539.
Hynes, W. L., Weeks, C. R., Iandolo, J. J. and Ferretti, J. J. (1987). Immunologic cross-reactivity of type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) and staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1.. Infection and immunity 55 (3) , pp. 837-8.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1986). Proteinase-related broad-spectrum inhibitory activity among group-A streptococci.. Journal of medical microbiology 22 (3) , pp. 257-64.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1986). Role of proteinase in the formation of inhibitory levels of hematin by group A streptococcus cultures on blood-containing media.. Journal of clinical microbiology 23 (5) , pp. 929-33.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1985). Production of broad-spectrum bacteriocin-like activity by group A streptococci of particular M-types.. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie, und Hygiene. Series A, Medical microbiology, infectious diseases, virology, parasitology 259 (2) , pp. 155-64.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1984). Bacteriocin like activity produced by an M type 25 group A streptococcus. Proc. Univ. Otago Med. Sch. 62 , pp. 109 - 110.
Wong, H. K., Tagg, J. R. and Hynes, W. L. (1981). Bacteriocin like inhibitors of group A streptococci produced by group F and G streptococci. Proc. Univ. Otago Med. Sch. 59 , pp. 105 - 106.

Book Chapters

Hynes, W. L. (2014). How ticks control microbes: innate immune responses Biology of Ticks (pp. 129-146) NY: Oxford University Press.
Johns, R., Ceraul, S., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2001). Tick immunity to microbial infections: control of representative bacteria in the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acrai: Ixodidae) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (pp. 638-644) Melborne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J. (1994). Assays for Hyaluronidase Activity Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 235 Bacterial Pathogenesis (pp. 606 - 616) Orlando: Academic Press Inc.
Hynes, W. L., Malke, H. and Ferretti, J. J. (1994). Expression of a kringle-streptokinase fusion protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Pathogenic Streptococci: Present and Future Proceedings of the XIIth Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases. (pp. 185 - 186).
Ferretti, J. J., Huang, T., Hynes, W. L., Malke, H., Simon, D., Suvorov, A. and Yu, C. E. (1991). Extracellular product genes of group A streptococci. Genetics of Streptococci, Lactococci and Enterococci (pp. 201 - 205) Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J. (1987). Cloning of the hyaluronidase gene from Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage H4489A. Streptococcal Genetics (pp. 150 - 152) Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Ferretti, J. J., Yu, C. E., Hynes, W. L. and Weeks, C. R. (1987). Molecular characterization of the group A streptococcal exotoxin type A (erythrogenic toxin) gene and product Streptococcal Genetics (pp. 130 - 135) Washington, DC: ASM Press.