Professor & Assoc Dean
Biological Sciences

Wayne Hynes

NORFOLK, 23529

Ph.D. in Microbiology, Otago University, (1985)

Contracts, Grants and Sponsored Research

Hynes, W. L. "Growth characteristics of six soil microorganisms" $20,000. Private. -
Hynes, W. L. and Shollenberger, L. "Role of Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) in infections caused by Rickettsia parkeri." $428,218. Federal. -
Persico, E., Hynes, W. L. and Gaff, H. "Rickettsia parkeri, an agent in the shadows of the Gulf Coast tick in coastal Virginia" $125,000. Private. -
Cumbie, A. and Hynes, W. L. "Assessment of Rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Coastal California" $9,841. Private. -
Hynes, W. L. and Gaff, H. "Lyme disease: Don’t forget the shrew!" $155,000. Federal. -
Hynes, W. L. "The role of defensin in the transmission of Borrelia burgdorfei" $60,000. Federal. January 2007 - December 2008
Hynes, W. L. and Sonenshine, D. "How Bacteria Colonize Ticks: The Role of antimicrobial proteins" $440,063. Federal. October 2002 - September 2007
Dobbs, F. and Hynes, W. L. "Antibiotic resistance, plasmids, and the potential for lateral gene transfer in Vibrio cholerae found in ships' ballast water" $200,355. Federal. June 2003 - February 2006


Infectious disease agents and mechanisms of disease (NOT treatment or diagnosis) / Microbiology / Bioterrorism agents / Innate immunity
Tick-Borne diseases

Research Interests

Ticks and Tick-borne diseases


Nadolny, R. M.., Wright, C. L.., Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L. and Gaff, H. (2014). Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern Virginia. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (5) , pp. 53-57.
Wright, C. L.., Hynes, W. L., White, B. T.., Marshall, M. N.., Gaff, H. and Gauthier, D. (2014). Single-tube real-time PCR assay for differentiation of Ixodes affinis and Ixodes scapularis. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (5) , pp. 48-52.
Wright, C. L.., Nadolny, R. M.., Jiang, J., Richards, A. L.., Sonenshine, D., Gaff, H. and Hynes, W. L. (2011). Rickettsia parkeri in gulf coast ticks, southeastern Virginia, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 17 (5) , pp. 896-898.
Nadolny, R. M., Wright, C. L., Hynes, W. L., Sonenshine, D. and Gaff, H. (2011). Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Virginia and implications for the spread of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Journal of Vector Ecology 36 (2) , pp. 464 - 467.
Fedrow, A., Wright, C., Gaff, H., Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L. and Richards, A. (2012). In vitro propagation of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae isolated from Amblyomma maculatum. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 64 (74-81).
Hynes, W. L., Stokes, M. M.., Hensley, S. M.., Todd, S. and Sonenshine, D. (2008). Using RNA interference to determine the role of varisin in the innate immune system of the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 46 , pp. 7-15.
Todd, S. M.., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2007). Tissue and life-stage distribution of a defensin gene in the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Med Vet Entomol 21 (2) , pp. 141-147.
Hynes, W. L., Ceraul, S. M.., Todd, S., Seguin, K. C.. and Sonenshine, D. (2005). A defensin-like gene expressed in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Med. Vet. Entomol. 19 , pp. 339-344.
Heller, E. L., Wright, C. L., Nadolny, R. M., Hynes, W. L., Gaff, H. and Walters, E. L. (2016). New records of Ixodes affinis parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology 53 (2) , pp. 441 - 445.
Wright, C. L., Sonenshine, D., Gaff, H. and Hynes, W. L. (2015). Experimental Vertical Transmission of Rickettsia parkeri in the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 6 , pp. 568 - 573.
Dobbs, F., Goodrich, A. L., Thomson, F. K. and Hynes, W. L. (2013). Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships’ ballast tanks and coastal waters: Assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA). Microbial Ecology 65 , pp. 969-974.
Mahasneh, A., Darby, M. M., Tolle, S. L., Hynes, W. L., Laroussi, M. and Karakas, E. (2011). Inactivation of Porphyromonas gingivalis by Low-Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma.. Plasma Medicine 1 , pp. 191 - 204.
Laroussi, M., Karakas, E. and Hynes, W. L. (2011). Influence of cell type, initial concentration, and medium on the inactivation efficiency of low-temperature plasma. IEEE Transactions on plasma science 39 (11) , pp. 2960-2961.
Turner, L. A.., McCombs, G., Hynes, W. L. and Tolle, S. L. (2009). A novel approach to controlling bacterial contamination on toothbrushes: chlohexidine coating. Int. J. Dent. Hyg. 7 (4) , pp. 241-245.
Hynes, W. L., Johnson, C. and Stokes, M. (2009). A single nucleotid mutation results in loss of enzymatic activity in the hyaluronate lyase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes. Microbial Path. 47 , pp. 308-313.
Morris, A. D.., McCombs, G. B.., Akan, T., Hynes, W. L., Laroussi, M. and Tolle, S. L. (2009). Cold Plasma Technology: Bactericidal effects of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus cereus microorganisms. J. Dent. Hyg. 83 , pp. 55-61.
Wyatt, K. B.., Campos, P. F.., Gilbert, M. T. P.., Kolokotronis, S., Hynes, W. L., DeSalle, R., Ball, J., Daszak, P., MacPhee, D. E.. and Greenwood, A. D.. (2008). Historical mammal extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease. PLoS ONE 3 (11).
Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2008). Molecular characterization and related aspects of the innate immune response in ticks. Front. Biosci. 13 , pp. 7046-7063.
Kocan, K. M.., de la Fuente, J., Manzano-Roman, R., Naranjo, V., Hynes, W. L. and Sonenshine, D. (2008). Silencing expression of the defensin, varisin, in male Dermacentor variabilis by RNA interference results in reduced Anaplasma marginale infections. Exp Appl Acarol 46 (1-4) , pp. 17-28.
Laroussi, M., Hynes, W. L., Akan, T., Lu, X. and Tendero, C. (2008). The Plasma Pencil: A source of hypersonice cold plasma bullets forbiomedical applications. IEEE Transact Plasma Sci. 36 , pp. 1298-1299.
Laroussi, M., Tendero, C., Lu, X., Alla, S. and Hynes, W. L. (2006). Inactivation of bacteria by the Plasma Pencil. Plasma Process. Polym. 3 , pp. 470-473.
Marshall, H., Hargraves, P. E.., Burkholder, J. M.., Parrow, M. P.., Elbrachter, M., Allen, E. H.., Knowlton, V. M.., Rublee, P. A.., Hynes, W. L., Egerton, T. A.., Remington, D. L.., Wyatt, K. B.., Lewitus, A. J.. and Henrich, V. C.. (2006). Taxonomy of Pfiesteria (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae 5 , pp. 481-496.
Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L., Ceraul, S. M.., Mitchell, R. and Benzine, T. (2005). Host blood proteins and peptides in the midgut of the tick Dermacentor variabilis (Say) contribute to bacterial control. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 36 , pp. 207-223.
Hynes, W. L. (2004). Virulence factors of the group A streptococci and genes that regulate their expression. Front Biosci 9 , pp. 3399-433.
Ceraul, S. M., Sonenshine, D. E., Ratzlaff, R. E. and Hynes, W. L. (2003). An arthropod defensin expressed by the hemocytes of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 , pp. 1099-1103.
Sonenshine, D., Ceraul, S. M.., Hynes, W. E.., Macaluso, K. R.. and Azad, A. F.. (2002). Expression of defensin-like peptides in tick hemolymph and midgut in response to challenge with Borrelia burgdorferi, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Exp Appl Acarol 28 (1-4) , pp. 127 - 134.
Broadwater, A. H.., Sonenshine, D., Hynes, W. L., Ceraul, S. and DeSilva, A. (2002). Glass capillary tube feeding: a method for infecting nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol 39 (2) , pp. 285-292.
Ceraul, S. M.., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2002). Resistance of the tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) following challenge with the bacterium Escherichia coli (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). J Med Entomol 39 (2) , pp. 376-383.
Johns, R., Ohnishi, J., Broadwater, A., Sonenshine, D., De Silva, A. M.. and Hynes, W. L. (2001). Contrasts in tick innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi challenge: immunotolerance in Ixodes scapularis versus immunocompetence in Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 38 (1) , pp. 99-107.
Johns, R., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2001). Identification of a defensin from the hemolymph of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 31 (9) , pp. 857-865.
Johns, R. H.., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2000). Enhancement of OspC expression by Borrelia burgdorferi in the presence of tick hemolymph. FEMS Microbiol Lett 193 (1) , pp. 137-141.
Hynes, W. L. and Walton, S. L.. (2000). Hyaluronidases of Gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 183 (2) , pp. 201-207.
Johns, R., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2000). Response of the tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) to hemocoelic inoculation of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochetales). J Med Entomol 37 (2) , pp. 265-270.
Hynes, W. L., Dixon, A. R.., Walton, S. L.. and Aridgides, L. J.. (2000). The extracellular hyaluronidase gene (hylA) of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 184 (1) , pp. 109-112.
McLaughlin, R. E.., Ferretti, J. J.. and Hynes, W. L. (1999). Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcin A-FF22 lantibiotic regulon: model for production of the lantibiotic SA-FF22 by strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 175 (2) , pp. 171-177.
Johns, R., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (1998). Control of bacterial infections in the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae): evidence for the existence of antimicrobial proteins in tick hemolymph. J Med Entomol 35 (4) , pp. 458-464.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J. (1995). A response regulator gene controls production of the lantibiotic streptococcin A-FF22.. Developments in Biological Standardization 85 , pp. 635-637.
Hynes, W. L., Hancock, L. and Ferretti, J. J.. (1995). Analysis of a second bacteriophage hyaluronidase gene from Streptococcus pyogenes: evidence for a third hyaluronidase involved in extracellular enzymatic activity. Infect Immun 63 (8) , pp. 3015-3020.
Hynes, W. L., Friend, V. L.. and Ferretti, J. J.. (1994). Duplication of the lantibiotic structural gene in M-type 49 group A streptococcus strains producing streptococcin A-M49. Appl Environ Microbiol 60 (11) , pp. 4207-4209.
Hynes, W. L., Ferretti, J. J.. and Tagg, J. R.. (1993). Cloning of the gene encoding Streptococcin A-FF22, a novel lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus pyogenes, and determination of its nucleotide sequence. Appl Environ Microbiol 59 (6) , pp. 1969-1971.
Hynes, W. L., Ferretti, J. J., Gilmore, M. S. and Segarra, R. A. (1992). PCR amplification of streptococcal DNA using crude cell lysates.. FEMS Microbiology Letters 73 (1-2) , pp. 139 - 142.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J.. (1989). Sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of the hyaluronidase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage H4489A. Infect Immun 57 (2) , pp. 533-539.
Hynes, W. L., Weeks, C. R., Iandolo, J. J. and Ferretti, J. J. (1987). Immunologic cross-reactivity of type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) and staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1.. Infection and immunity 55 (3) , pp. 837-8.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1986). Proteinase-related broad-spectrum inhibitory activity among group-A streptococci.. Journal of medical microbiology 22 (3) , pp. 257-64.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1986). Role of proteinase in the formation of inhibitory levels of hematin by group A streptococcus cultures on blood-containing media.. Journal of clinical microbiology 23 (5) , pp. 929-33.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1985). Production of broad-spectrum bacteriocin-like activity by group A streptococci of particular M-types.. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie, und Hygiene. Series A, Medical microbiology, infectious diseases, virology, parasitology 259 (2) , pp. 155-64.
Hynes, W. L. and Tagg, J. R. (1984). Bacteriocin like activity produced by an M type 25 group A streptococcus. Proc. Univ. Otago Med. Sch. 62 , pp. 109 - 110.
Wong, H. K., Tagg, J. R. and Hynes, W. L. (1981). Bacteriocin like inhibitors of group A streptococci produced by group F and G streptococci. Proc. Univ. Otago Med. Sch. 59 , pp. 105 - 106.

Book Chapters

Hynes, W. L. (2014). How ticks control microbes: innate immune responses Biology of Ticks (pp. 129-146) NY: Oxford University Press.
Johns, R., Ceraul, S., Sonenshine, D. and Hynes, W. L. (2001). Tick immunity to microbial infections: control of representative bacteria in the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acrai: Ixodidae) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (pp. 638-644) Melborne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J. (1994). Assays for Hyaluronidase Activity Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 235 Bacterial Pathogenesis (pp. 606 - 616) Orlando: Academic Press Inc.
Hynes, W. L., Malke, H. and Ferretti, J. J. (1994). Expression of a kringle-streptokinase fusion protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Pathogenic Streptococci: Present and Future Proceedings of the XIIth Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases. (pp. 185 - 186).
Ferretti, J. J., Huang, T., Hynes, W. L., Malke, H., Simon, D., Suvorov, A. and Yu, C. E. (1991). Extracellular product genes of group A streptococci. Genetics of Streptococci, Lactococci and Enterococci (pp. 201 - 205) Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Hynes, W. L. and Ferretti, J. J. (1987). Cloning of the hyaluronidase gene from Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage H4489A. Streptococcal Genetics (pp. 150 - 152) Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Ferretti, J. J., Yu, C. E., Hynes, W. L. and Weeks, C. R. (1987). Molecular characterization of the group A streptococcal exotoxin type A (erythrogenic toxin) gene and product Streptococcal Genetics (pp. 130 - 135) Washington, DC: ASM Press.