Professor
Department of Human Movement Sciences

David Swain

2024 Student Recreation Ctr
Norfolk, 23529

Dr. Swain, a Professor of Exercise Science, received his PhD in Physiology in 1984 from the Medical School of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focus is on cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise. He originated the concept of oxygen consumption reserve (VO2 reserve) for exercise prescription. He authored the American College of Sports Medicine's recommendations for cardiorespiratory exercise in 2011, and he was the senior editor for ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 7th edition. Dr. Swain served as an Associate Editor for the ACSM's research journal, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, from 2004 through 2013. He holds the ACSM's highest clinical certifications and is also a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist via the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Dr. Swain received Old Dominion University's highest teaching award, University Professor, in 2006, and he was the Graduate Program Director for Exercise Science from 2010 through 2020. Dr. Swain's research has been cited in scientific journals over 17,000 times. In 2020, 2021, and 2022, he was named to Stanford University's World Top 2% of Scientists.

Dr. Swain has made a lifelong commitment to personal fitness, which serves as a role model for his students. He was a paratrooper in the US Army in his 20s, set a Virginia state record in the bench press in his 40s, crossed the US by bicycle when he was 50, summited Kilimanjaro - the highest peak in Africa - at 62, and he has completed the US Army's road march (carrying 35 pounds 12 miles in under 3 hours) multiple times in his 60s.

Ph.D. in Physiology, University of North Carolina Medical School, (1984)

B.A. in Biology, University of South Florida, (1978)

Contracts, Grants and Sponsored Research

Swain, D. P. "Effect of altitude acclimatization on warfighter marskmanship at altitude" $1500000. Federal. January, 2011 - December, 2013
Graves, M. "Effect of exercise intensity and mode on orthopedic stress" $1500. Old Dominion University. January, 2013 - May, 2013
Perez, W. "Effect of exercise intensity on cognitive function" $1500. Old Dominion University. May, 2012 - August, 2012
Simmons, R. "Heart rate variability in EMS personnel" $1500. Old Dominion University. August, 2011 - December, 2011
Colberg-Ochs, S. R. "Protective Health Effects of Differing Types and Intensities of Exercise Training in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes" $600000. Private. July, 2008 - June, 2011
Swain, D. P. "Development and validation of a physical performance prediction model" $212000. Federal. January, 2010 - December, 2010
Ringleb, S. I. "Development and Validation of Physical Performance Prediction Model" $395000. Old Dominion University. , 2007 - , 2010
Swain, D. P. "Development and validation of a physical performance prediction model" $212000. Federal. January, 2009 - December, 2009
Ringleb, S. I. "Development and Validation of a Physical Performance Prediction Model" $542000. . July, 2007 - September, 2009
Swain, D. P. "Development and validation of a physical performance prediction model" $362000. Federal. January, 2008 - December, 2008
Swain, D. P. "Development and validation of a physical performance prediction model" $251000. Federal. , 2007 - , 2008
Swain, D. P. "Development and validation of a physical performance prediction model" $251000. Federal. , 2007 - , 2008
Swain, D. P. "Technical highlights for combine testing with S&T" $20600. Federal. , 2007 - , 2008
Colberg-Ochs, S. R. "Exercise Timing and Maximal Glycemic Benefits for Type 2 Diabetic Individuals" $9750. Private. November, 2006 - August, 2007
Colberg-Ochs, S. R. "Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Improvement in Defective Neurovascular Function in Type 2 Diabetes" $300000. Private. July, 2004 - June, 2007
Swain, D. P. "Forever Fit" $6350. . , 2003 - , 2004
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $8295. . , 2003 - , 2004
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $3870. . , 2003 - , 2004
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $7680. . , 2003 - , 2004
Swain, D. P. "Walk and Talk grant" $5000. . , 2003 - , 2004
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Assessments" $1435. . , 2003 - , 2004
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program" $2550. . , 2003 - , 2004
Swain, D. P. "Forever Fit" $8875. . , 2002 - , 2003
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $11475. . , 2002 - , 2003
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $6450. . , 2002 - , 2003
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $8692. . , 2002 - , 2003
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Assessments" $1340. . , 2002 - , 2003
Swain, D. P. "Physical activity, nitric oxide, and neurovascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes" $300000. . , 2001 - , 2003
Colberg-Ochs, S. R. "Physical Activity, Nitric Oxide, and Neurovascular Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes" $300000. Private. January, 2001 - December, 2003
Swain, D. P. "Forever Fit" $11225. . , 2001 - , 2002
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $14175. . , 2001 - , 2002
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $4945. . , 2001 - , 2002
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $9335. . , 2001 - , 2002
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $9375. . , 2001 - , 2002
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Assessments" $1140. . , 2001 - , 2002
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program" $5550. . , 2001 - , 2002
Swain, D. P. "Forever Fit" $15425. . , 2000 - , 2001
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $8625. . , 2000 - , 2001
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $8625. . , 2000 - , 2001
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $3440. . , 2000 - , 2001
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $9755. . , 2000 - , 2001
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $9250. . , 2000 - , 2001
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Assessments" $1035. . , 2000 - , 2001
Swain, D. P. "Forever Fit" $14655. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Forever Fit (formerly Elder Fitness)" $14655. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $12080. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $7175. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $11380. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $7250. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Assessments" $1050. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Assessments" $1050. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program" $1975. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program" $2400. . , 1999 - , 2000
Swain, D. P. "ElderFitness" $12990. . , 1998 - , 1999
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $9680. . , 1998 - , 1999
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $5125. . , 1998 - , 1999
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $11190. . , 1998 - , 1999
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $8593.75. . , 1998 - , 1999
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Assessments" $865. . , 1998 - , 1999
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program of the Executive Leadership Institute for the Navy Exchange Command" $975. . , 1998 - , 1999
Swain, D. P. "Elder Fitness" $18550. . , 1997 - , 1998
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $11600. . , 1997 - , 1998
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $7998. . , 1997 - , 1998
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $9585. . , 1997 - , 1998
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $7305. . , 1997 - , 1998
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program of the Executive Leadership Institute for the Navy Exchange Command" $2860. . , 1997 - , 1998
Swain, D. P. "Back Injury Prevention Program" $1680. . , 1996 - , 1997
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $11760. . , 1996 - , 1997
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $7175. . , 1996 - , 1997
Swain, D. P. "TEMPO: Therapeutic Exercise Program" $7250. . , 1996 - , 1997
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $9430. . , 1996 - , 1997
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program of the Executive Leadership Institute for the Navy Exchange Command" $3080. . , 1996 - , 1997
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program of the Executive Leadership Institute for the Navy Exchange Command" $3080. . , 1996 - , 1997
Swain, D. P. "Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Program" $5915. . , 1995 - , 1996
Swain, D. P. "Fitness testing for CHKD employees" $7872. . , 1995 - , 1996
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $9860. . , 1995 - , 1996
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $6150. . , 1995 - , 1996
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $6770. . , 1995 - , 1996
Swain, D. P. "Wellness Program of the Executive Leadership Institute for the Navy Exchange Command" $4875. . , 1995 - , 1996
Swain, D. P. "Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Program" $5020. . , 1994 - , 1995
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Certifications" $7120. . , 1994 - , 1995
Swain, D. P. "Health/Fitness Instructor Workshop" $4920. . , 1994 - , 1995
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $11150. . , 1994 - , 1995
Swain, D. P. "Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Program" $2727. . , 1993 - , 1994
Swain, D. P. "Training Course for Health and Fitness Instructors" $2750. . , 1993 - , 1994
Swain, D. P. "" $24000. . , 1984 - , 1986

Expertise

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Exercise
Cardiorespiratory Exercise Prescription

Articles

Wood, D. (2021). The physical parameters of tactical climbing and performance characterisitcs of Naval Special Warfare operators.. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 35 (4) , pp. 949-954.
Swain, D. P. (2021). Theorectical and empirical basis for equating heart rate reserve with VO2 reserve.. Journal of Clinical Exercise Physiology 10 (3) , pp. 97-101.
Swain, D. P. (2020). Aerobic recovery following radical prostatectomy: a case study.. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 52 (2) , pp. 296-302.
Wood, D. (2019). Influence of body mass on fitness performance in Naval Special Warfare operators.. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
Vigil, J. N. (2017). Ammonia inhalation does not increase dead lift one-repetition maximum in college-aged male and female weightlifters.. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
Swain, D. P. (2016). Impact forces of walking and running at the same intensity.. J Strength Cond Res.
Walker, R. E. (2015). Effect of added mass on treadmill performance and pulmonary function.. J Strength Cond Res 29 (4) , pp. 882-888.
Moore, C. M. (2014). The effects of acute hypoxia and exercise on marksmanship.. Med Sci Sports Exerc 46 (4) , pp. 795-801.
Grieco, C. (2012). Effect of intensity of aerobic training on insulin sensitivity/resistance in recreationally active adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
Swain, D. P. (2011). Effect of training with and without a load on military fitness and marksmanship. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 25 (7) , pp. 1857-1865.
Garber, C. (2011). Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory.... Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 43 (7) , pp. 1334-1359.
Franklin, B. (2010). Cardioprotective benefits of vigorous physical activity. The Medical Roundtable Summer 2010 , pp. 167-174.
Swain, D. P. (2010). Effects of training on physical performance wearing personal protective equipment. Military Medicine 175 , pp. 664-670.
Swain, D. P. (2009). Exercise equipment: Assessing the advertised claims. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal 13 (5) , pp. 8-11.
Colberg-Ochs, S. R. (2009). Postprandial walking is better for lowering the glycemic effect of dinner than pre-dinner exercise in type 2 diabetic individuals. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 10 (6) , pp. 394-397.
Gormley, S. E. (2008). Effect of intensity of aerobic training on VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40 , pp. 1336-1343.
Hill, L. C. (2008). Energy balance during backpacking. Int J Sports Med 29 , pp. 883-887.
Hill, L. (2008). Energy balance during backpacking. International Journal of Sports Medicine 29 , pp. 883-887.
Colberg-Ochs, S. R. (2003). Use of heart rate reserve and rating of perceived exertion to prescribe exercise intensity in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 26 (4) , pp. 986-990.
Colberg-Ochs, S. R. (2000). Exercise and diabetes control: A winning combination. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 28 (4) , pp. 63-64, 69-72, 77-78, 81.

Books

Swain, D. P. (2013). ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Ehrman, J. (2009). ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing adn Prescription. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Book Chapters

Swain, D. P. (2013). Cardiorespiratory exercise prescription ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (pp. 466-481) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Swain, D. P. (2009). Cardiorespiratory Exercise Prescription. In ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (pp. 448-462) Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Presentations

Swain, D. P. (May 30, 2012). The intensity of aerobic exercise: New recommendations Lecture American College of Sports Medicine annual meeting San Francisco, CA.
Swain, D. P. (June 3, 2010). Unique physiological adaptations to vigorous exercise American College of Sports Medicine annual meeting Baltimore, MD.
Swain, D. P. (October 30, 2009). Vigorous activity required for cardiovascular protection Scott Sport and Exercise Medicine Symposium Glasgow, Scotland.
DeMaio, M. (October 6, 2009). Physical performance decrements in military personnel wearing protective equipment Human Perfromance Enhacement for NATO Military Operations Sofia, Bulgaria.
Swain, D. P. (March 30, 2006). Energy and power considerations for strength and endurance athletes International Society of Sports Nutrition regional conference Virginia Beach, VA.
Swain, D. P. (November 7, 2004). Moderate or vigorous exercise: What should we prescribe? "Scientific Sessions" of the American Heart Association New Orleans, LA.
Swain, D. P. (June 5, 2004). Critical intensity threshold for increasing VO2max National convention of the American College of Sports Medicine Indianapolis, IN.
Dowling, E. A. (June 2, 2004). Validaty of a new method for estimating VO2max – Part II American College of Sports Medicine Conference .
Swain, D. P. ( 2002). VO2 Reserve and the minimal intensity for training – new insights National convention of the American College of Sports Medicine St. Louis, MO.
Swain, D. P. (June 14, 2001). Alternative Medicine: Is it Valid? Norfolk, VA.
Dowling, E. A. (May 31, 2001). Effects of Resistive Training on Wheelchair Propulsion in Disabled Males with Paraplegia Baltimore, MD.
Swain, D. P. ( 2000). Changes in the ACSM metabolic equations National convention of the American College of Sports Medicine Indianapolis, IN.
Swain, D. P. ( 2000). VO2 Reserve: the new standard for prescribing cardiorespiratory exercise National convention of the American College of Sports Medicine Indianapolis,IN.
Wright, R. L. ( 1999). Exercise hypertension: racial differences National convention of the National Association of African American Studies Houston, TX.
Swain, D. P. (January 30, 1998). Aging and Exercise Norfolk, VA.
Swain, D. P. (January 5, 1998). Exercise and Gestational Diabetes Norfolk, VA.
Swain, D. P. (July 9, 1997). Current Research on Bicycling Performance Virginia Beach, VA.
Swain, D. P. (April 1, 1997). Reversing Aging through Exercise Portsmouth, VA.
Swain, D. P. (April 1, 1997). Reversing Heart Disease Portsmouth, VA.
Swain, D. P. (February 18, 1997). Preventive Low Back Care Surry, VA.
Swain, D. P. (August 21, 1996). Fitness for Seniors Virginia Beach, VA.
Swain, D. P. (May 15, 1996). Personal Wellness through Nutrition Executive Leadership Institute training Newport News, VA.
Swain, D. P. (September 6, 1995). Building Corporate Strength through Employee Wellness Executive Leadership Institute training Newport News, VA.
Swain, D. P. (August 31, 1995). Personal Wellness through Exercise Executive Leadership Institute training Newport News, VA.
Swain, D. P. (July 31, 1995). Personal Wellness Profile Executive Leadership Institute training Newport News, VA.
Swain, D. P. (March 31, 1995). Exercise Therapy for Diabetes Diabetes in Review symposium for health professionals Williamsburg, VA.
Swain, D. P. (February 1, 1995). Nutrition and Heart Disease Regional meeting of state CommonHealth coordinators Virginia Beach, VA.
Swain, D. P. (June 30, 1994). Diabetes - What You Need to Know Blue Ridge XIII Comprehensive School Health Program Conference .
Swain, D. P. (November 12, 1993). Cholesterol Reduction Norfolk, VA.
Swain, D. P. ( 1986). Is there an optimum body size for competitive bicycling? World Congress on the Medical and Scientific Aspects of Cycling in association with the 1986 World Cycling Championships Colorado Springs, CO.
Coast, J. R. ( 1986). Metabolic requirements of riding wind-load simulators as compared to cycling on the road World Congress on the Medical and Scientific Aspects of Cycling in association with the 1986 World Cycling Championships Colorado Springs, CO.
Clifford, P. S. ( 1986). Prediction of oxygen consumption from heart rate during cycling World Congress on the Medical and Scientific Aspects of Cycling in association with the 1986 World Cycling Championships Colorado Springs, CO.
  • 2011: SCHEV Outstanding Faculty Award - University Finalist, Old Dominion University
  • 2010: Shining Star faculty member, ODU
  • 2008: Most Inspiring Faculty Award - College and University,
  • 2008: Shining Star faculty member, ODU
  • 2006: University Professor, Old Dominion University
  • 2004: Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist, National Strength and Conditioning Association
  • 1999: Rufus and Sarah Tonelson Faculty Award, Darden College of Education
  • 1996: Program Director, American College of Sports Medicine
  • 1994: Scholar Award, Darden College of Education, Old Dominion University
  • 1992: Exercise Specialist, American College of Sports Medicine
  • 1989: Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine